Friday, May 22, 2020

The Core Of Android Architecture - 995 Words

It is the core of Android architecture that forms the foundation of Android. Linux kernel includes hardware drivers, power management, memory management, process management and binder driver, which provides all the fundamental services needed by the system. Although it is called Linux kernel, it is not a standard Linux kernel; Google has customized it for Android devices. The main difference between them is the binder driver, which is an Android-specific inter-process communication mechanism that enables one Android process to call a procedure in another Android process. Another major difference is the ashmem module, which is an Android version of shared memory allocator, similar to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) shm but with a simpler file-based API. And also the Power Manager has been enhanced to save battery, which is critical for smartphones. Libraries On top of Linux kernel are Libraries, which provide services written in native language like C and C++. It contains a long list of middle wares that include SQLite, WebKit, SSL, Media, C runtime library. SQLite is responsible for database, WebKit is for browser support, SSL is used to secure network transmissions. Android Runtime This layer contains core libraries and Dalvik Virtual Machine (DVM), which are needed to run Android applications. DVM is the Android implementation of Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which optimized for mobile apps for less memory consumption and better performance. DVM wasShow MoreRelatedAndroid1342 Words   |  6 PagesAndroid operating system revolution in mobile technology Published:  23, March 2015 Android (Operating System) - Revolution in Mobile Technology Abstract Androids mobile operating system is based on the Linux kernel and it is a software stack for mobile devices. This operating system is one of the worlds best-selling Smartphone platform. Android involves many developers writing applications that helps in extended the functionality of the devices. There are currently over 1,50,000 applications availableRead MoreStudy of Milestone 3s Mobile Phone Implementation Plan948 Words   |  4 Pagesaccess encryption and remote management support including device-wide wipe and replace security architectures (Gold, 2011). These technologies make it possible for Milestone to manage each of their applications remotely and also completely erase the contents of a device if it is lost or stolen. A second major design criterion is to create an effective Application Programmer Interface (API) architecture that allows for any of the Milestone applications and associated resource calls including databaseRead MoreCmgt/430 Enterprise Security1513 Words   |  7 Pagesanalysis environments in three key ways: They give attention to data flows as opposed to stocks; they rely on data scientists and product and process developers rather than d ata analysts, and they are moving analytics away from the IT function and into core business, operational, and production functions. This assignment will specify the provision of organization data and access on an organizational website. 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IOS 5 3Read MoreTaking a Look at the Phantom A32103 Words   |  8 Pages MediaTek1.5 GHzQuad core processor 4.1.Mediatek introduction 4.2.What does QAUD MEAN? 5. Processor architecture 5.1.HowCPU works 5.2.Single core processor 6. Quad core processor 6.1. Dual core processor 6.2. Quad core Architecture 6.3. Quad core performance with multimedia 7. MT6589T Quad core 1.5 GHZ ARM Cortex-A7 7.1.1. Big Little 7.1.2. CPU Migration 7.1.3.Heterogeneous Multi Processing 7.1.4. Scheduling 7.1.5. ARM Cortex A-7 7.1.6. ARM Architecture 8. References â€Æ' 1Read MoreFeatures Of A Operating System1048 Words   |  5 Pageswouldn’t affect all of the users. Operating systems come preloaded on any computer you purchase and it is possible to upgrade or change the OS. There are three Operating Systems that will be explained further on, Microsoft Windows, Chrome OS, and Android. Android is different than Microsoft Windows and Chrome OS because it is an operating system for mobile phones and tablets. Microsoft Windows or Windows OS is a computer operating system developed by the Microsoft Corporation to run PCs and was introducedRead MoreMobile Operating Systems1268 Words   |  6 Pagessystems †¢ Apple iOS †¢ RIM BlackBerry OS †¢ HP WebOS †¢ Bada from Samsung Electronics 2. Third party proprietary operating systems †¢ Microsoft Windows Phone 7 †¢ Microsoft Windows Mobile 3. Free open source operating systems †¢ Android †¢ MeeGo †¢ Symbian Let’s now take a look at some popular operating systems 1. Apple iOS Apple s iPhone OS was originallyRead MoreAndroid App Development Research Paper1064 Words   |  5 PagesHow Android App Development Is Changing The Mobile Space With the growth of mobile phone technology, the world is experiencing immeasurable contracting rate. Along with the rising population of mobile users, facilities are not relenting to expand also. 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Sunday, May 10, 2020

English Language Practice Indirect Speech

In conversation and writing, dialogue may be either direct or indirect. Direct speech comes from the source, whether spoken aloud or written as a quotation. Indirect speech, also known as reported speech, is a second-hand account of something a person said.   Using the Past Tense Unlike direct speech, which occurs in the present tense, indirect speech usually occurs in the past tense. For example, the verbs say and tell  are used to relate a conversation that you have had with someone. In this case, the verb that you are relating moves one step back into the past. Tom: Im working hard these days.You: (relating this statement to a friend): Tom said he was working hard lately.Annie: We bought some truffles for a fancy dinner.You: (relating this statement to a friend): Annie told me they had bought some truffles for a fancy dinner. Using the Present Tense Indirect speech sometimes can be used in the  present tense  to report to someone who has not heard the original statement. When using say in the present tense, keep the tense the same as the original statement, but make sure to change the appropriate  pronouns  and helping verbs. For example: Direct speech:  I am giving my opinion.Reported speech:  He says he is giving his opinion.Direct speech: I moved back to my parents house two years ago.Reported speech: Anna says she moved back to her parents house two years ago. Pronouns and Time Expressions When changing from direct speech to reported speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence. Direct speech:  Im going to visit Tom tomorrow.Reported speech:  Ken told me he was going to visit Tom the next day. It is also important to change time expressions when referring to present, past, or future time to match the moment of speaking. Direct speech:  We are working on our end of the year report right now.Reported speech:  She said they were working on their end of the year report at that moment. Questions When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. In these examples, note how the response repeats the question.  Simple past, present perfect, and past perfect  all  change to past perfect in the reported form. Direct speech:  Do you want to come with me?Reported speech:  She asked me if I wanted to come with her.Direct speech:  Where did you go last weekend?Reported speech:  Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.Direct speech:  Why are you studying English?Reported speech:  She asked me why I was studying English. Verb Changes Although the past tense is most often used in indirect speech, you can also use other verb tenses. Here is a chart of the most common verb changes for reported speech. Present simple to past simple tense: Direct speech: I work hard.Reported speech: He said he worked hard. Present continuous to past continuous tense: Direct speech:  She is playing the piano.Reported speech:  He said she was playing the piano. Future tense (using will): Direct speech:  Tom will have a good time.Reported speech:  He said Tom would have a good time. Future tense (using going): Direct speech:  Anna is going to attend the conference.Reported speech:  Peter said Anna was going to attend the conference. Present perfect to past perfect tense: Direct speech:  I have visited Rome three times.Reported speech:  He said he had visited Rome three times. Past simple to past perfect tense: Direct speech:  Frank bought a new car.Reported speech:  She said Frank had bought a new car. Worksheet Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense by moving the reported verb one step back into the past when necessary. Im working in Dallas today. / He said he _____ (work) in Dallas that day.I think he will win the election. / She said she _____ (think) he _____ (win) the election.Anna lives in London. / Peter says Anna _____ (live) in London.My father is going to visit us next week. / Frank said his father ______ (visit) them the following week.They bought a brand new Mercedes! / She said they _____ (buy) a brand new Mercedes.I have worked at the company since 1997. / She said she _____ (work) at the company since 1997.They are watching TV at the moment. / She said they _____ (watch) TV at that moment.Francis drives to work every day. / He said Francis _____ (drive) to work every day.Alan thought about changing his job last year. / Alan said that he _____ (thought) about changing his job the previous year.Susan is flying to Chicago tomorrow. / Susan said she _____ (fly) to Chicago the next day.George went to the hospital last night. / Peter said that George _____ (go) to the hospital the preceding night.I enjoy playing golf on Saturdays. / Ken says that he _____ (enjoy) playing golf on Saturdays.I will change jobs soon. / Jennifer told me she _____ (change) jobs soon.Frank is getting married in July. / Anna tells me that Frank ______ (get married) in July.October is the best month of the year. / The teacher says that October _____ (be) the best month of the year.Sarah wants to buy a new house. / Jack told me that his sister ______ (want) to buy a new house.They are working hard on the new project. / The boss told me that they _____ (work) hard on the new project.Weve lived here for ten years. / Frank told me that they _____ (live) there for ten years.I take the subway to work every day. / Ken tells me he _____ (take) the subway to work every day.Angela prepared lamb for dinner yesterday. / Peter told us that Angela ______ (prepare) lamb for dinner the day before. Worksheet Answers Im working in Dallas today. / He said he  was working  in Dallas that day.I think he will win the election. / She said she  thought  he  would win  the election.Anna lives in London. / Peter says Anna  lives  in London.My father is going to visit us next week. / Frank said his father  was going to visit  them the following week.They bought a brand new Mercedes! / She said they  had bought  a brand new Mercedes.I have worked at the company since 1997. / She said she  had worked  at the company since 1997.They are watching TV at the moment. / She said they  were watching  TV at that moment.Francis drives to work every day. / He said Francis  drove  to work every day.Alan thought about changing his job last year. / Alan said that he  had thought  about changing his job the previous year.Susan is flying to Chicago tomorrow. / Susan said she  was flying  to Chicago the next day.George went to the hospital last night. / Peter said that George   had gone  to the hospital the preceding night.I enjoy playing golf on Saturdays. / Ken says that he  enjoys  playing golf on Saturdays.I will change jobs soon. / Jennifer told me she  would change  jobs soon.Frank is getting married in July. / Anna tells me that Frank  is getting  in July.October is the best month of the year. / The teacher says that October  is  the best month of the year.Sarah wants to buy a new house. / Jack told me that his sister  wanted  to buy a new house.They are working hard on the new project. / The boss told me that they  were working  hard on the new project.Weve lived here for ten years. / Frank told me that they  had lived  there for ten years.I take the subway to work every day. / Ken tells me he  takes  the subway to work every day.Angela prepared lamb for dinner yesterday. / Peter told us that Angela  had prepared  lamb for dinner the day before.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

We can go about anyplace in the universe and happen a machine that will distribute local currency, taking the money from our place history with the usage of a bank card. Yet, when we go from a primary attention doctor to a specializer in our place town, we must get down from the beginning, supplying the new physician ‘s office with all our medical information, frequently by finishing paper signifiers. If we were going abroad and needed entree to our wellness information, we would confront troubles. We will write a custom essay sample on The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fiscal establishments have for old ages developed and used criterions for the electronic exchange of fiscal information, but medical specialty has lagged far behind in the electronic exchange of medical information [ 1 ] . Health concerns all of us. Information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) are progressively supplying us with the tools and cognition that we need to better wellness attention, enabling solutions that benefit patients every bit good as health care professionals and establishments in both the private and public sectors worldwide [ 2 ] . As patients interact with increasing Numberss of clinicians and infirmaries, it seems sensible to anticipate their wellness attention informations to follow them. In catastrophes such as hurricanes or fires, paper records may be lost everlastingly [ 1 ] . In big infirmaries, these records may be unavailable because they are stored in the clinic or concern office when the patient comes into the exigency room. Access to records is limited to one individual at a clip, and such entree must be on site. paper records may necessitate a big country for storage. It may miss comprehensive medical information refering the history of intervention given by separate health care suppliers, Fortunately, electronic wellness records are bit by bit going a world [ 3,4 ] . The term â€Å" e-health † , coined in the latter portion of the 20th century. It is mentioning to all digital health-related information. It covers, merchandises, such as devices to guarantee the changeless monitoring of blood force per unit area in patients, systems, such as computer-assisted surgery systems, and services, such as: operating surgical, computer-assisted prescription services, and information services for patients and consumers, including single electronic wellness records [ 2 ] . There is a strong belief that wellness IT will ensue in important betterments in patients’health every bit good as the wellness attention system [ 5 ] . Many people use the footings electronic medical record ( EMR ) and electronic wellness record ( EHR ) interchangeably. However, these footings describe wholly different constructs, both of which are to better patient safety, better the quality and efficiency of patient attention, and cut down health care bringing costs [ 6 ] . An electronic medical record ( EMR ) is more than an electronic version of the paper-based record. It is a computer-based system for pull offing and presenting informations required for patient attention. It offers many maps, such as an incorporate position of patient informations, clinical determination support, clinician order entry, integrated communications support, and entree to knowledge resources. The EMR should interface to other systems, such as charge, pharmaceutics, radiology, programming, and pattern direction [ 3 ] . An electronic wellness record ( EHR ) means a depository of patient informations in digital signifier, stored and exchanged firmly, a nd accessible by multiple authorised users. It includes information sing patient demands during episodes of attention provided by different wellness attention professionals. The EHR is used by different wellness attention professionals and besides by administrative staff. Among the assorted wellness attention professionals who use different constituents of the EHR are doctors, nurses, radiotherapists, druggists, research lab technicians and radiographers. Furthermore, EHRs are besides used by patients or their parents [ 12 ] . The precursor to the EHR is the paper-based patient-centred medical record that was pioneered in the early twentieth century [ 4 ] . In 1907, the Mayo Clinic pioneered the construct of one separate file for each patient, making the patient-centered medical record. In the sixtiess, Lawrence Weed, MD, introduced the problem-oriented medical record in order to supply standardisation of patient records [ 3 ] . In 1968, G. Octo Barnett, MD, developed the early EMR systems, it was Computer-Stored Ambulatory Record [ 3 ] . In 1972, The Department of Family Medicine at the University of South Carolina was one of the first known organisations to develop and utilize an EMR [ 7 ] . Carcinero, et Al. dei ¬?ne the ideal clinical record as the sum sum of an person ‘s clinical history available to any healthcare professional responsible for that individual ‘s care. [ 4 ] . In 1996, the Chief Information Office of the Veterans Administration introduced Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture. It is a national EMR system built on a client-server architecture, which ties together work Stationss and personal computing machines with graphical user interfaces at Veterans Health Administration installations [ 3 ] . In 2007, Hollingworth et al. , found that utilizing EMRs for ordering does non interrupt clinical work flow, and enhances safety and quality of attention for the patient [ 7 ] . In 2009, McCullough and Parente, found little but positive effects of EMR on patient safety [ 5 ] . The cost of a system in which suppliers of wellness attention to inveterate ill people operate in disconnected silos where one physician frequently does non cognize what another has tested for and prescribed, sometimes even when they are members of the same attention squad. This deficiency of information-sharing and coordination: More than 50 % of physicians do non follow best pattern guidelines ; Between 30 and 50 % of patients with chronic disease are hospitalized because of unequal attention direction. Information engineering, through sharing cognition among the attention squad can do a difference. These results are non hard to accomplish [ 13 ] . Because of that, we need to incorporate electronic wellness attention records ( EHRs ) . This is motivated by a desire to incorporate complex health care information systems with a position to bettering procedure and service optimisation [ 4 ] . In 2004, President Bush announced a federal enterprise for all wellness attention systems to passage from paper-based informations direction to electronic-based informations direction [ 7 ] The function of electronic health care record in incorporate wellness attention by enabling clinical information sharing and i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ows between health care organic structures, supplying a individual lifelong record centered on the patient that allows easy collection of information from separate episodes of attention from different establishments, leting information to be presented in ways relevant to immediate clinical demands, easing proficient steps that cut down mistakes by extinguishing manual procedures and leting connexions to other clinical information systems and media depositories such as electronic prescriptions and clinical guideline systems [ 4 ] . Harmonizing to Armitage et al. , an integrated bringing system ( IDS ) provides a agency to construct a more effectual and efficient wellness attention system that takes a patient-centered focal point and better meets the demands of the populations served. The construct of the IDS emerged in the wellness attention industry in the 1990s in response to the quickly altering environment [ 8 ] . In February 2003, Kaiser announced programs for a new records system, Kaiser Permanente is the most well-known illustration of a to the full integrated bringing system. Kaiser Permanente operates in nine provinces, including Washington, DC, and has about 9 million members, 14,000 physicians and 160,000 employees. It will incorporate patients’clinical medical records with assignment programming, enrollment, and charging systems across all of Kaiser ‘s parts. When the system is complete it will supply the ability for Kaiser doctors to hold instant entree to patients ‘ medical reco rds ; e-messaging capableness ; computerized order entry ; e-prescribing ; and intervention guidelines. [ 8, 10, 11 ] Harmonizing to Shih, there are four theoretical accounts of integrating: multispecialty group pattern ( MSGP ) with a wellness program, an IDS or MSGP single-entity bringing system that does non have a wellness program, theoretical account which involves private webs of independent suppliers that portion and co-ordinate services, theoretical account which includes authorities facilitated webs of independent suppliers on both the province and local degrees [ 8 ] . Electronic wellness information systems are critical to supplying integrated attention. One of the major constituents of an integrated bringing system ( IDS ) is a wellness information system that can roll up patient-level informations through an electronic wellness record ( EHR ) and aggregative informations to system broad degree for rating. Harmonizing to Hillestad et al. , effectual acceptance of EHRs can take to major cost nest eggs, cut down medical mistakes and better wellness [ 8 ] . There are multiple benefits to implementing EHRs, efficiency of wellness services bringing ; clip nest eggs for all wellness professionals and patients by and large ; cost nest eggs ; fewer clinical and medical mistakes associated with inadequate or uncomplete information ; improved patient safety ; improved quality of attention ; betterments in public wellness [ 9 ] . Harmonizing to Hillestad et al. , other benefits of EHRs include: Integration of evidence-based recommendations for preventative services, such as testing tests, with patient informations ( age, sex and household history ) to place specific services for each patient, Increased patient conformity with preventative attention recommendations, such as when EHR systems remind doctors of everyday visits and attention, Enhanced disease direction, Increased communicating between multiple specializers for higher-risk patients [ 8 ] . Despite the benefits of implementing EHRs, there are barriers to uptake like: Doctor and nurse reserve due to: fright of break to pattern work flows ; clip required for developing staff ; concerns about interoperability ; fright of losing professional liberty ; concern about stiff inflexibleness of documenting with EHRs ; Comfort-level, accomplishment and experience with paper-based records. Harmonizing to Crossen and Tollen, barriers to organizing integrated wellness attention systems fall into six classs: Legal and regulative, Governance, Operational, Cultural, Academic medical centre particular and Safety cyberspace specific [ 9 ] . Harmonizing to Hillestad, merely 20 to 25 per centum of all infirmaries have adopted EHRs. Lack of acceptance can be attributed to high costs, deficiency of enfranchisement and standardisation, and concerns about privateness. EHR deployment faces multiple barriers, which frequently hinder EHRs from making their full potency [ 8,9 ] The complications in incorporating the usage of EHRs within and between healthcare suppliers will go on to be disputing. EHR integrating schemes are less good developed and, in many instances, constrained by the moderating factors that are characteristic of the health care sector. The challenges of EHR acceptance, integrating and assimilation are hence legion. Technical challenges include, for illustration: trouble in aggregating bing patient information [ 4 ] . This is an overview about Electronic wellness record system. This position showed that there are benefits and restrictions in the field of integrating between electronic wellness records since some of the bing system have restriction while some of them are non deployed yet. There for, there is an pressing demand to plan and deploy an integrating electronic wellness records system. How to cite The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Social facilitation theory Essay Example

Social facilitation theory Paper Social facilitation describes the process in which performance is affected by the presence of others and is studied due to the importance of performance improvement in workplaces, education etc. Within social facilitation are coaction and audience effects. The term audience effect is used to explain the effect of a passive presence on performance and was first observed by Dashiell (1930). He looked at the effect of observation on college students completing multiplication problems, and discovered that whilst more problems were finished, the students tended to make more errors, when problem-solving before an audience. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Studies then focused on the audience size and status. Porter (1939) asked people who stuttered to read aloud to an audience, finding that participants presented with a larger audience were much more affected, and stuttered more than those with a smaller audience. Cottrell et al. (1968) used a blindfolded audience as his experimental condition so that participants could not be observed and found that the audience effects practically disappeared. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Paulus and Murdock (1971) compared the audience effects shown by student research participants either being observed by an audience of psychology students, or by an audience which contained an expert. The expert was likely to be able to evaluate the performance/capability of the student and in this condition, results showed stronger audience effects. The experiment did use an unrepresentative sample. Latanend Harkins (1976) asked participants about their own nervousness as they recited poems before audiences, which varied in size and status. Whilst the participants rated themselves on different experiences, the experimenters found that participants rated themselves more nervous when before a larger or higher status audience. These experiments implied that the ability of the audience to evaluate the participants performance was important, that both the status and size of the aud ience made a great difference to the results. We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Others studied audience effect variance with task complexity. Cottrell, Rittle and Wack (1967) found that an audience facilitates the memorisation of simple word lists but more complex ones are learnt more slowly. Zajonc, Heingarter and Herman (1969) studied cockroaches and their behaviour when presented with a four-cockroach audience in two situations. In the first, cockroaches ran down a straight runway into a darkened goal area in order to avoid bright light. Here, the audience improved performance. In the second situation, the cockroach escape response was made more complex by requiring a 90O turn to achieve the goal. In this situation, audience impaired cockroaches performance. Hunt and Hillerys (1973) human experiment yielded comparable results in complex and simple mazes, both experiments lacked ecological validity. From his experiment, Zajonc summarised that social facilitation depends on task complexity and familiarity, saying that, An audience impairs the acquisition of new responses and facilitates the emission of well-learned responses. Simple, familiar things are done better when observed, but more complex, unfamiliar tasks are done less well when observed due to an instinctive response to anothers presence and increase in arousal. Cottrell (1972) rejected this, suggesting the evaluation apprehension model instead. He said that early in life we through anothers evaluation we receive social rewards and punishments (approval, disapproval etc. ), so the audience triggers arousal based on evaluation apprehension.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria Essays - Pharmaceuticals Policy

Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria Essays - Pharmaceuticals Policy Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicines. Antibiotic resistance can be the result of different things. One cause of resistance could be drug abuse. There are people who believe that when they get sick, antibiotics are the answer. The more times you use a drug, the more it will decrease the effect it has on you. That is because the bacteria has found a way to avoid the effects of that antibiotic. Another cause of resistance is the improper use of drugs. When patients feel that the symptoms of their disease have improved, they often stop taking the drug. Just because the symptoms have disappeared it does not mean the disease has gone away. Prescribed drugs should be taken until all the medicine is gone so the disease is completely finished. If it is not, then this will just give the bacteria some time to find a way to avoid the effects of the drug. One antibiotic that will always have a long lasting effect in history is penicillin. This was the first antibiotic ever to be discovered. Alexander Fleming was the person responsible for the discovery in 1928. In his laboratory, he noticed that in some of his bacteria colonies, that he was growing, were some clear spots. He realized that something had killed the bacteria in these clear spots, which ended up to be a fungus growth. He then discovered that inside this mold was a substance that killed bacteria. It was the antibiotic, penicillin. Penicillin became the most powerful germ-killer known at that time. Antibiotics kill disease-causing bacteria by interfering with their processes. Penicillin kills bacteria by attaching to their cell walls. Then it destroys part of the wall. The cell wall breaks apart and bacteria dies. After four years, when drug companies started to mass produce penicillin, in 1943, the first signs of penicillin-resistant bacteria started to show up. The first bacteria that fought penicillin was called Staphylococcus aureus. This bug is usually harmless but can cause an illness such as pneumonia. In 1967, another penicillin-resistant bacteria formed. It was called pneumococcus and it broke out in a small village in Papua New Guinea. Other penicillin resistant bacteria that formed are Enterococcus faecium and a new strain of gonorrhea. Antibiotic resistance can occur by a mutation of DNA in bacteria or DNA acquired from another bacteria that is drug-resistant through transformation. Penicillin-resistant bacteria can alter their cell walls so penicillin can not attach to it. The bacteria can also produce different enzymes that can take apart the antibiotic. Since antibiotics became so prosperous, all other strategies to fight bacterial diseases were put aside. Now since the effects of antibiotics are decreasing and antibiotic resistance is increasing, new research on how to battle bacteria is starting. Antibiotic resistance spreads fast but efforts are being made to slow it. Improving infection control, discovering new antibiotics, and taking drugs more appropriately are ways to prevent resistant bacteria from spreading. In developing nations, approaches are being made to control infections such as hand washing by health care people, and identifying drug resistant infections quickly to keep them away from others. The World Health Organization has began a global computer program that reports any outbreaks of drug-resistant bacterial infections. In the early 1900's, the discovery of penicillin began the antibiotic era. People thought they have finally won the battle with bacteria. But now since antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly, new strategies must be developed to destroy these microbes. To many scientists the antibiotic era is over Bibliography Bylinsky, Gene. Sept. 5,1995. The new fight against killer microbes. Fortune. p. 74-76. Dixon, Bernard. March 17,1995. Return of the killer bugs. New Statesman & Society. p. 29-32. Levy, Stuart B. Jan. 15,1995. Dawn of the post-antibiotic era? Patient Care. p. 84-86. Lewis, Ricki. Sept. 1995. The rise of antibiotic-resistant infections. FDA Consumer. p. 11-15. Miller, Julie Ann. June 1995. Preparing for the postantibiotic era. BioScience. p. 384-392. an excellent news article summary, got me a 100, by strife007

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

What Is a placebo

What Is a placebo A placebo is a procedure or substance with no inherent medicinal value. Placebos are often used in statistical experiments, especially those involving pharmaceutical testing, in order to control the experiment as much as possible. We will examine the structure of experiments and see the reasons for using a placebo. Experiments Experiments typically involve two different groups: an experimental group and a control group. The members of the control group do not receive the experimental treatment and the experimental group does. In this way, we are able to compare the responses of members in both groups. Any differences that we observe in the two groups may be due to the experimental treatment. But how can we be sure? How do we really know if an observed difference in a response variable is the result of an experimental treatment? These questions address the presence of lurking variables. These kinds of variables influence the response variable but are often hidden. When dealing with experiments involving human subjects we should always be on the lookout for lurking variables. A careful design of our experiment will limit the effects of lurking variables. Placebos are one way to do this. Use of Placebos Humans can be difficult to work with as subjects for an experiment. The knowledge that one is a subject of an experiment and a member of a control group can affect certain responses. The act of receiving a medication from a doctor or nurse has a powerful psychological effect on some individuals. When someone thinks they are being given something that will produce a certain response, sometimes they will exhibit this response. Because of this, sometimes doctors will prescribe placeboes with therapeutic intent, and they can be effective treatments for some issues.   To mitigate any psychological effects of the subjects, a placebo can be given to the members of the control group. In this way, every subject of the experiment, in both the control and experimental groups, will have a similar experience of receiving what they think is medication from a health professional. This also has the added benefit of not revealing to the subject if he or she is in the experimental or control group. Types of Placebos A placebo is designed to be as close to the means of administration of the experimental treatment as possible. Thus placebos can take on a variety of forms. In the testing of a new pharmaceutical drug, a placebo might be a capsule with an inert substance. This substance would be chosen to have no medicinal value and is sometimes referred to as a sugar pill. It is important that the placebo mimic the experimental treatment as closely as possible. This controls the experiment by providing a common experience for everyone, no matter which group they are in. If a surgical procedure is the treatment for the experimental group, then a placebo for the members of the control group could take the form of a faked surgery. The subject would go through all of the preparation and believe that he or she was operated on, without the surgical procedure actually being performed.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Ryan air case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ryan air case study - Essay Example The Ryanair, founded in 1985 by the Ryan Family, is an airline which provides airline services that cover routes between Ireland and the United Kingdom. This airline industry served first as a second choice for passengers because the main airline that time was Aer Lingus. During its first years of operations, Ryanair was a "full service conventional airline", with two different seat classes and renting three varied types of aircraft. (O'Higgins 2004) In the early 1990's, Ryanair encountered problems in terms of management and profit gains. The lack of a stable management led by a good CEO resulted to losses amounting to 20 million Irish pounds. Before the appointment of Michael O'Leary as chief executive, five people have already held that same position in a short span of time. (O'Higgins 2004) With the leadership of the newly appointed CEO Michael O'Higgins, Ryanair underwent reforms in order to recover the losses the airline had in the early years. The new formula includes setting-up cheap fares, having no frills or decorations, and adopting the Southwest Airlines model. These reforms started the big turnaround in the airline company in the latter years of the decade. In 1997, Ryanair was a company "floated in an IPO1 on the Dublin Stock Exchange and on Nasdaq- 1002 but the following year, it registered 9.1 million shares on the London Stock Exchange." By the year 2002, the company was included in the Nasdaq- 100. (O'Higgins 2004 p. 834) III. STRATEGIC INTENT Low Cost Airfares The main goal of Ryanair is to keep the company as the leader of low fare airlines which operates "point-to-point short-haul flights" out of regional or secondary airports in Europe. (O'Higgins 2004, p.835) All the other strategies revolve around the primary objective of providing "no-frills service with low fares". This approach tries to target the budget conscious leisure and business travelers, as well as people who are never used to travel by air instead used other means of travel like land and water. (O'Higgins 2004) The air company provided the cheapest way possible to travel by air. It distributed most of the seat inventories to the lowest fare class. The no frills services made the company focus more on other services that are essential to the customers like: (1) frequent departures, (2) advance reservations, (3) baggage handling, and (4) consistent on-time services. It also removed the "non-essential extras (advance seat assignments, free in-flight meals, multi class seating, and access to a frequent flyer program, complimentary drinks, and other amenities) that interfered with the reliable, low cost delivery of its basic flights." (O'Higgins 2004, p. 835) Impacts The strategies of Ryanair which are centered to providing the cheapest air travelling services contributed to very good results. The company surpassed the Aer Lingus as the number one airline covering travels between Ireland and United Kingdom. This fantastic result is due to increased number of passengers (4 million) availing the low cost airline services. The increase of the company's market share to 37 percent enabled them to expand from Irish-UK route to 133 routes, with 86 destinations from 16 countries around the world. (O'Higgins 2004) By the end of 2003, the company had achieved the following: Ryanair became

Monday, February 3, 2020

Presenting Business Plans Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Presenting Business Plans - Research Paper Example The guitars will be relatively cheaper compared to our rivals. However, we will only sell guitars and not any other musical instruments. (Stimpson, P., & Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations. (2003) Cambridge University Press) The target market will be teenagers and adults who are interested in buying good quality guitars but cannot buy guitars from expensive brands. Also, the market would be for new guitar players who are not aware of a lot of these brands. The key aim is going to be to sell cheap guitars to people who want to learn it as the intermediate guitar players are likely to stick to companies like Gibson and Yamaha. We are going to sell all types of guitars. The types will include acoustic guitars, electric guitars, semi-electric guitars, hollow body acoustic guitars, hollow body semi-acoustic guitars and jazz guitars. Basically, we will be importing these guitars from different countries where the guitars are relatively cheaper according to our research. These countries include Thailand, Japan, Korea and Canada. The guitars will not be from a well-known brand. However, these will be from different local companies in different countries. The quality will be guaranteed on every guitar as our staff is highly trained. We are not going to have a massive number of employees. Some of my friends are good guitar players and they are capable in determining if the guitar is worth buying. It is basically a partnership firm and on the top of the hierarchy, there are going to be 3 partners including myself. The two partners will be in charge of buying the guitars from different countries. These people are highly skilled in playing guitar and they have a good idea in buying these guitars. These people will be travelling once every 6 months and are going to buy a good number of guitars. Depending on the market and the demand, these people are then going to go to buy the guitars according to the preferences from our loyal customers. Below us, there

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Nano-diamond Powder Layer Effect on Fast Neutrons Reflection

Nano-diamond Powder Layer Effect on Fast Neutrons Reflection A. Taghian, D. Rahi, H. Sadeghi Abstract: This paper has investigated the effect of nano-diamond powder on reflection of fast neutrons. It compares the effect of graphite and nano-dimond layers on reflection of fast neutrons. Nano-diamond as a new article that theres carbon in families of many of the behaviors and properties of carbon and other members of the family, the impact of the application of this article accepts it without knowing so, and understand it without understanding the carbon carbon and other members of the family is not possible. Nano-diamond in addition to diamonds, diamond properties such as hardness, resistance to different environments and The small size and a shell with active groups that it has different properties to conventional diamonds. On the one hand the diverse applications of properties and provide new and on the other hand, production and working with this article difficult. Of course, the proper use of diamond in different applications when possible, which is a non-diamond carbon and other impurities as possible are separated from it in addition any application requires special surface properties as well. The amount of impurities in synthetic diamond production depends on the extreme ways. We used 241Am-Be 100  µCi, BF3 and LiI detector in the present study. Two materials have been coated. The experimental and simulated results have good agreement with consideration of errors. The results show that fast neutrons reflection could be carried out by nano-diamond powder better than graphite. Keyword: 1-Nano-diamond powder 2-Graphite 3-Neutron 4-Neutron reflection 5- BF3 detector 6-LiI detector 1-Introduction Neutrons shielding is based on the fast neutrons reflection as prompt and delay gamma are produced by neutron capture [1]. The scattering cross section of hydrogen is high for neutrons. So, hydrogen containing material such as polyethylene and hydrocarbon are used for neutron shielding [1]. Diamond has cubic lattice structure [2]. In this structure, one carbon atom is surrounded by four atom of carbon with covalent bonds. Very strong covalent bond of a carbon adjacent atom is caused by increasing of elastic modulus and ultra-high temperature stability [2]. Therefore, they make the strongest natural material. The structure of bulk material is 3D. But, the structure of nanomaterial is 2D (thin film), 1D (nanorod and nanotube) and zero dimensions (nanoparticle and nanocrystal). In addition to change properties of material, this technology increases the surface to volume ratio. Therefore, the ratio of surface reaction increases on the material. By development of nuclear technology over the past 40 years, rules and standards of the IAEA have become more difficult and smaller for absorbed dose of personalities and environments in different conditions. There have been many limitations for neutron shield construction such as mass and volume of the shield [3]. 2-Investigatin of neutron reflector Reflectors are used in reactors to prevent neutrons escaping. The best reflector has small absorption cross section and large scattering cross section. Graphite and beryllium (according to solid phase) are usually used for reflection of neutrons. Actually, the size of structural units (a) must be comparable to the wavelength of neutrons (ÃŽ »). Coherent and efficient scattering of neutrons is proportional to the ratio of ÃŽ »/a. A neutron can be described by wavelength, ÃŽ » and wave vector . The neutron energy is equal to , and are mass, energy and Plank constant respectively [2]. The neutron beam intensity is decreased by transmission across material. The neutron beam intensity reduction is equal to , , and are thickness of material, number of atoms in unit volume and total cross section respectively [1,4]. 3-Experimental setup 3-1-BF3 detector BF3 detector is used for detection of thermal neutron. It works on proportional region. The isotope of 10B is used in the BF3 gas detector. The absorption cross section of 10B is large for absorbing of thermal neutrons. The BF3 counter detects the alpha and the lithium particles produced by the reaction [4,6,5]: The efficiency of BF3 detector is proportional to absorption cross section of 10B and it changes for neutrons with different energies. 3-2- LiI detector In addition of BF3 detector, LiI detector has been used for detection of neutron. 6LiI is an inorganic scintillator. Neutron detection by 6Li is based on the reaction The cross section for this reaction is of the l/v type up to 10 keV, with a value of 937 b at 0.025 eV [3, 6]. 3-3- The used material The neutron source was 241Am-Be 100  µCi. The BF3 and LiI detectors were used with 2 cm diameter and 20 and 14 cm height respectively. The BF3 and LiI detectors were located on polyethylene base. 3-3-1- The origin and fabrication method of the nano-diamond powders Diamond powder production properties depend on the method. Desired characteristics are obtained by purification and properties are determined. A manufacturing process for milling the nano-diamond to the appropriate size is explosive method. Diamond powder production common methods are carried out in dry (environmental gas synthesis) and wet (water base) mediums. The Nano-diamond powder production was carried out by blasting method which could lead to the Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, nitrogen monoxide and etc. creation. The tiny particles of diamond are formed along with some solid impurities mixed with gases in the blast chamber. Table 1 shows the chemical analysis of ash samples. The results recorded in the table indicate the chemical analysis of ash residue from the combustion of the samples by wet chemical methods which are XRD, ICP. Table 1: The chemical analysis of ash samples are presented In the nano-diamond powder manufacturing process through blasting, diamond particles are formed at pressures higher than 200 kilo bars. At temperatures above 1000  ° C, the low pressure converted particles into graphite. Methods of separation and purification of gas and liquid nano- diamonds are divided into two groups that raise the cost of investment. After all purification of the resulting material is carried out as the carbonic compound still has many types and amounts of impurities such as O, N, H, a small amount of metal and carbondioxide. Nano- diamond is then purified and turned ashen while the ash explosion leads to a large amount of black and dark -graphite production. Powder used in these experiments was purified by liquid method. In this method, different oxidizing agents such as acids, mixed acids, bases and salts are used. All these methods are only carried out in laboratory scale. Characteristics of nano-diamond powder used are shown in Table 2. Table 2: The properties of the used nano-diamond powder in experiments Figure 1 shows the measured spectrum of 100  µCi 241Am-Be neutron source supplied by I.R. Iran Atomic Energy Agency and figure 2 show absorption cross section of 10B and 11B. Figure 1: Neutron spectrum of 241Am-Be Figure 2: Variation of neutron cross section of 10B and 11B isotopes 3-4-Geometry The experimental setups have been sketched in figure 3 and 4 for investigation of graphite and nano-diamond layers effect on reflection of fast neutrons. Figure 3: The experimental setup for investigation of graphite and nano-diamond layers effect on reflection of fast neutrons Figure 4: The experimental setup for investigation of graphite and nano-diamond layers effect on shielding of fast neutrons In the present study of neutron reflection, the height and radial of the cylinder are 35 cm and 11 cm respectively with one side open and the other closed. The neutron source is in center of the cylinder and the detector is placed in front of the open side. The cylinder is made of polyethylene with 2 mm thickness. Graphite and nano-diamond are coated with polyethylene in cylinder. The distance of the detector lateral surface and the open side of the cylinder was 20 cm. The thicknesses of coated graphite and nano-diamond were 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm. The background neutrons are originated from walls, floor and other instrument in the around environment. A polyethylene cube with 10 cm thickness and a lead block with 2 cm thickness are located between source and detector for absorption of emitted gamma rays and neutrons from source. This geometry detects gamma rays background and neutrons. This work repeats for each measurement with and without absorbers. The first and second counts are foreground and background respectively. If background subtracts from foreground count, the result will be net count of reflected neutrons from cylinder to detector. To investigate the neutron shielding properties, neutron source has been located in center of graphite cubic with 2 mm thickness. Also, the LiI detector has been set in front of one side of the graphite cubic. Graphite and nano-diamond are coated on the same side of graphite cubic. The distance between the detector lateral surface and the open side of the cubic was 15 cm. The thicknesses of coated graphite and nano-diamond were 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm. 4-Results of measurements As mentioned above, the thicknesses of graphite and nano-diamond were 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm respectively. In each measurement, the same thicknesses were compared at a margin oferrorequal to  ±23 percent. The errors come from neutron source and count measurement as the error of neutron source was  ±15 percent and the count measurement (N) one was N1/2.The neutron counts in different thicknesses of graphite and nano-diamond are shown in figure 5 and 6. Figure 5: Neutron count diagram for graphite and nano-diamond layers with different thicknesses (Reflection) Figure 6: Neutron count diagram for graphite and nano-diamond layers with different thickness (Shielding) 5-Simulated results by Monte-Carlo method All the system parts have been simulated by Monte-Carlo method. We have used MCNPX2.6 to calculate the absorbed dose. MCNPX2.6 is a general purpose of Monte Carlo radiation transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. Form of molecule, bond and density are changed in a nano chemical composition. Coulomb force determines the form of molecules. The total charge of the neutron is zero. Therefore, there is no effect on neutron cross section with matter of nano scale. Also, the neutron reaction is nuclear and it is independent of charge or electron cloud so that it can be simulated by MCNP code. Therefore, it is not important to consider the nano-scale of the nano-diamond. However, nano-scale affects density and it must be noted in Monte-Carlo input. The neutron flux has been calculated in the sensitive volume of BF3 and LiI detectors with different thicknesses of graphite and nano-diamond. The results are shown in figure 7 and 8. Figure 7: Calculated neutron flux in sensitive volume of BF3 detector in different thickness of graphite and nano-diamond layers (Reflection) Figure 8: Calculated neutron flux in sensitive volume of LiI detector in different thickness of graphite and nano-diamond layers (Shielding) Because of hydrogen presence in the nano-diamond composition, it can reflect neutrons better than graphite. The neutrons counting is increased by graphite and nano-diamond thickness enhancement. However, determining thenumberofneutrons is faster for nano-diamond layer. Fig. 4 and fig. 6 show that the reflected neutrons are increased by thickness enhancement. The differences arise from the measurement method as the measurements are done by BF3 detector which measures thermal neutrons. The simulated results are considered the all of neutrons. Also, Fig. 7 and 8 show that nano-diamond has a more shielding effect in comparison with graphite because the net count rate becomes smaller by using nano-diamond shielding. The differences are because of the measurements done by BF3 detector and the simulation results are considered as the spectrum of neutrons. 6-Conclusion Two main factors effecting on neutron reflection are cross section and density. Nano-diamond (C10H16) contains hydrogen and it has larger cross section interaction in comparison with graphite. In addition, the density of nano-diamond and graphite are 3.5 and 1.8 g/cm3 respectively. According to the results, true count of nano-diamond reflector is 2 times of graphite reflector. The simulated and experimental results have good agreement by consideration of errors. Also, the number of low energy neutrons in nano-diamond reflector is larger than in graphite one. Therefore, conventional material can be put aside and nano-diamond is used for neutron shielding. References Glenn F. Knoll, â€Å"Radiation Detection and Measuremen†, Fourth Edition, 2010, , John Wiley Sons, Inc T. Taler, Characterization of Isolated Nnaodiamond Particle, Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 6-18 (2004). Nicholas Tsoulfanidis; †Measurement and Detection of Radiation†; 2th edition, university of Missouri- Rollapress. 706 (1995). V. A. Artem’ev, †Atomic Energy†, Vol. 94, NO. 4, 282(2003). H.W. Schmitt, R.C. Block, R.L. Bailey, Total neutron cross section of 10B in the thermal neutron energy range, Volume17, June–July 1960, Pages 109–115. K. Kleinknecht, Dtectors for Particle Radiation, Cambridge University Press, London New York New Rochele, 120-125(1986). [1] Isfahan University, Faculty Of Advanced Science And Technologies, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Isfahan, Iran Ahmad Taghian; Email: [emailprotected]; Telephone: 00989128482357 Davood Rahi: Email: [emailprotected] [2] Malek Ashtar University Of Technology, Health Physics Department, Shahin shahr, Isfahan, Iran Hosein Sadeghi: Email: [emailprotected]

Friday, January 17, 2020

Vacant Chapter 5 Payment

We spend a quiet, comfortable evening and I can't help watching Emily for most of it. It's obvious she hasn't seen television in a while because she's mesmerized. We are watching some Cajun cooking show on public access, but to see it through her eyes, it's like we are watching the most fascinating show known to man. â€Å"I put a little mo' wine in here, maybe a little mo' wine fo' me,† the host says in a Creole southern drawl. â€Å"Oh my gosh! Ethan, he is so funny! ‘I gar-un-tee'!† she laughs as she mimics the chef, and I can't help the smile that cracks across my face. She could let the world swallow her whole with the weight of her situation, but she doesn't. Instead she carries on, seemingly carefree, laughing at the talkative old cook with the gift of gab. â€Å"Emily?† She glances over at me, still laughing at the TV. It's the moment I know I'm making the right decision. I take a deep breath, ready to lay things on the line. â€Å"Hang on! He's going to tell a story about squirrel hunting! This'll be good!† Emily says with enthusiasm. While I really need to get my thoughts out, I can't deny her this moment. It's so pure, so I decide to indulge her for the final five minutes of the show. As the Cookin' Cajun finishes, Emily focuses her attention on me. â€Å"You wanted to talk about something?† The light and sparkle in her eyes is amazing. She looks happy and carefree instead of nervous. She seems to assume the best of every situation. Given the circumstances, you'd think she would be nervous, but instead, she acts as though we're going to talk about whether she'll make oatmeal or chocolate chips cookies next. I suddenly feel something I haven't felt in a very long time: content. â€Å"Yeah,† I begin, though I'm not sure why I'm nervous, other than the fact she may say no. She may refuse my help. She may tell me to mind my own business, that she doesn't need anyone to look after her, but I have to try. â€Å"I want you to stay here.† Her mouth drops open, but no sound comes out. â€Å"With me,† I finish. I'm not sure whether her speechlessness is a result of shock or horror. I decide to play it safe with more justification. â€Å"You can't squat next door. It's not safe, it's illegal, and you don't need any hassles from the cops.† She sits for a moment with her eyes trained on her hands while her fingers twist with each other on her lap. Her hair is frizzy from the humidity, and despite having it pulled back, there are tiny tendrils sticking up forming an angelic halo around her face. After a few moments, she finally speaks. â€Å"So, what do you want in return?† What? I'm fully aware she has no money, so why would she think I would want her to pay- I'm not even finished with my own thought when I realize she's not talking about monetary payment. Nothing is ever free, and she thinks I want her in return for providing food and shelter. The thought strips me down to the core. â€Å"No!† I shout unnecessarily, but I can't help it. I do not want that! She's hiding her face, but I can see her scrunching her eyes closed. I take a breath to calm down and explain myself. â€Å"No,† I start again, much calmer than before. â€Å"I don't want anything from you, Emily. I want to help you. I know how†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I stop and take a deep breath. I need her to understand where I'm coming from. â€Å"I know how hard this situation can be.† She flinches and snaps her head up to look me in the eye. â€Å"You don't want†¦you know, then?† She gestures between us to further her point. Lie. â€Å"No. The last thing I want is for you to be taken advantage of.† While the thought of being with her physically is an attractive offer, I would never want it under that set of circumstances. I know how easy it is to become a target when you're young and in need. â€Å"But, why? Everyone wants something, Ethan. There has to be something you want from me. I mean, it's okay if you want†¦ you know†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Her cheeks flame red as she says this. God, she's so naive she can't even say the word â€Å"sex.† It only solidifies my decision that I'm doing the right thing, but she's right. People always want something in return, so I will have to give her a reason why I don't want anything from her. I have to be honest with her and let her know that I'm all too familiar with her situation.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Effect Of The Bullwhip Effect On Your Model - 1403 Words

If there are multiple questions in a comment, please allow the candidate to respond before asking the next question. (1) I know that a large lot size has been associated with increasing number of defective units. On page 1, you wrote: â€Å"production stages are characterized†¦.†. What is your evidence that fast production increases the generation of defective items (scrap)? (2) Your demand is deterministic and the bullwhip effect has no place in your thesis. The bullwhip effect has no effect on your model, why it was mentioned twice? What is its relevance in the thesis? (3) You assumed a single raw material to produce a single product. This makes Table 2.1 not representative of the literature review. For example, Jaber and Goyal (2009)†¦show more content†¦What makes your model unique in that regard? (6) On page 43, you consider that p = d. This situation can never happen. So, why need to consider it? I also think that N0 can never reach infinity; there should be maximum and minimum values on M0 and N0. What are these values? The minimum value that either M0 or N0 can take is 1. Note that when h3 h’1, then neither M0 nor N0 is valid. In that case, they are forced to 1. Do you agree? (7) Transportation in Figure 3.4 and its fixed and variable costs are either factored into the total cost of the distribution centre or the finished product warehouse. That is, transportation is not a level in the supply chain. This makes the model three rather than four levels. If you disagree, then why transportation is important to consider in an MNC context? (8) Also, you wrongly phrased your model as a single item that is produced from different types of raw material; actually you assumed one type of raw material to produce a finished product. This is why it was possible for you to find an optimal solution. Furthermore, you neither considered the capacity of a transport vehicle nor the number of vehicles available. Why not? These points must be made clear in the thesis. (9) On page 31 you wrote: â€Å"Transferring raw materials from RMW to MUP in batches to the buffer area makes the raw material inventory dynamics different from the earlier works†, what do you mean by this statement, and why it is important? Please

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Price Of Any Financial Instrument Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 927 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? The price of any financial instrument is equal to the present value of the expected cash flows from the financial instrument (Fabozzi Mann, 2006, p. 121). In order to determine the price, it requires an estimate of the expected cash flows and required yield. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Price Of Any Financial Instrument Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Where the expected cash flows are refers to coupon payment and the required yield reflects the yield for financial instruments with comparable risk (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 16). The formula for pricing a bond: Where: P = bond price n = number of periods C = coupon payment r = periodic interest rate M = par value t = time period when the payment is to be received. The required yield is determined by investigating the yields offered on comparable bonds in the market (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 16). By comparable, it means option free bonds of the same credit quality and the same maturity. A fundamental of a bond is that the bond price changes in the opposite direction in the required yield (Mann Powers, 2002). It means that the required yield increases, the present value if the cash flow decrease and leads to price decrease. When coupon rate is equal to the required yield, the price of bond will be equal to par value. If the coupon rate is higher than required yield, the bond pr ice will be above par (sold at premium). However, if the required yield is greater than coupon rate, the bond price will be less than par value (sold at discount) (Mann Powers, 2002). As the bond move closer to maturity, most of the bonds will be priced equal to par value. Yield The yield on any investment, also known as internal rate of return is the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows from the investment equal to the cost of the investment (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 37). Mathematically, the yield (y) on any investment is the interest rate that satisfies the below equation. Where: CFt = cash flow in year t P = price of the investment N = number of years In order to solve the (y), it requires a trial and error method. The objective is to find the interest rate that will make the present value of the cash flows equal to the price (Fabozzi Mann, 2006, p. 121). It is the same formula to compute yield to maturity. There are several bond yield measures commonly quoted by dealers and used by portfolio managers. Current yield relates the annual coupon interest to the market price (Fabozzi Mann, 2006, p. 120). It takes into account only the coupon interest and no other source of return that will affect an investorà ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ã ƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢s yield. Time value of money is ignored. Next, yield to call is assumes that issuer will call the bond at an assumed call data and the call price is the price that specified in the call schedule. The procedure for calculating the yield to any assumed call date is the same as any yield calculation: Where: M* = call price n* = number of periods until the assumed call date Yield to put is the interest rate that makes the present value of cash flows to be assumed put date plus the put price on the date as set forth in the put schedule equal to bond price (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 37). Lastly, yield to worst is the minimum of the yield to maturity, yield to call and yield to put. The procedure for calculating the yield to put is the same as any yield calculation: Where: M* = put price n* = number of periods until the assumed put date Arbitrage Opportunity in Bond Market Arbitrage refers to buying an instrument in one market and simultaneously selling it in another, gaining profit from the differences in buying and selling price (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 11). Arbitrage usually happens when the market is inefficient. The person who makes did this transaction by using the market inefficiency is called an arbitrager (Fabozzi, 2012, p. 11). In order to gain arbitrage in the bond market, once must buy a bond by borrowing from bank. During maturity, arbitrager will received the principal plus last coupon payment. Then use the amount received from the bond to repay back the bank. After repayment, the balance amount will be the arbitrage riskless profit (Choi, Getmansky Tookes, 2009). However, this rarely happens as demand of the bond increase will cause the bond price increases until the extent that there wonà ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢t be any arbitrage opportunity (Satya, n.d.). Choi, D., Getmansky, M., Tookes, H. ( 2009). Convertible bond arbitrage, liquidity externalities, and stock prices. Journal of Financial Economics, 91(2), 227-251. Fabozzi, F.J. (2012). Pricing of bonds. In bond markets, analysis and strategies 7th edition (p. 16). United States: Pearson Hall. Fabozzi, F.J. (2012). Pricing of bonds. In bond markets, analysis and strategies 7th edition (p. 37). United States: Pearson Hall. Fabozzi, F.J. (2012). Introduction. In bond markets, analysis and strategies 7th edition (p. 11). United States: Pearson Hall. Fabozzi, F.J., Mann, S.V. (2006). Bond pricing, yield measures, and total return. In the handbook of fixed income securities 7th edition (p. 107). United States: McGraw-Hill. Fabozzi, F.J., Mann, S.V. (2006). Bond pricing, yield measures, and total return. In the handbook of fixed income securities 7th edition (p. 120). United States: McGraw-Hill. Fabozzi, F.J., Mann, S.V. (2006). Bond pricing, yield measures, and total return. In the handbook of fixed inco me securities 7th edition (p. 121). United States: McGraw-Hill. Mann, S.V., Powers, E.A. (2002). Indexing a bondà ¢ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬ÃƒÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¾Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¢s call price: an analysis of make-whole call provision. Journal of Corporate Finance, 9(1), 535-554. Satya. (n.d.). Arbitrage opportunity in bond market. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from https://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/ArbitrageOpportunitiesInBondMarket.html