Friday, May 22, 2020

The Core Of Android Architecture - 995 Words

It is the core of Android architecture that forms the foundation of Android. Linux kernel includes hardware drivers, power management, memory management, process management and binder driver, which provides all the fundamental services needed by the system. Although it is called Linux kernel, it is not a standard Linux kernel; Google has customized it for Android devices. The main difference between them is the binder driver, which is an Android-specific inter-process communication mechanism that enables one Android process to call a procedure in another Android process. Another major difference is the ashmem module, which is an Android version of shared memory allocator, similar to Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) shm but with a simpler file-based API. And also the Power Manager has been enhanced to save battery, which is critical for smartphones. Libraries On top of Linux kernel are Libraries, which provide services written in native language like C and C++. It contains a long list of middle wares that include SQLite, WebKit, SSL, Media, C runtime library. SQLite is responsible for database, WebKit is for browser support, SSL is used to secure network transmissions. Android Runtime This layer contains core libraries and Dalvik Virtual Machine (DVM), which are needed to run Android applications. DVM is the Android implementation of Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which optimized for mobile apps for less memory consumption and better performance. DVM wasShow MoreRelatedAndroid1342 Words   |  6 PagesAndroid operating system revolution in mobile technology Published:  23, March 2015 Android (Operating System) - Revolution in Mobile Technology Abstract Androids mobile operating system is based on the Linux kernel and it is a software stack for mobile devices. This operating system is one of the worlds best-selling Smartphone platform. Android involves many developers writing applications that helps in extended the functionality of the devices. There are currently over 1,50,000 applications availableRead MoreStudy of Milestone 3s Mobile Phone Implementation Plan948 Words   |  4 Pagesaccess encryption and remote management support including device-wide wipe and replace security architectures (Gold, 2011). These technologies make it possible for Milestone to manage each of their applications remotely and also completely erase the contents of a device if it is lost or stolen. A second major design criterion is to create an effective Application Programmer Interface (API) architecture that allows for any of the Milestone applications and associated resource calls including databaseRead MoreCmgt/430 Enterprise Security1513 Words   |  7 Pagesanalysis environments in three key ways: They give attention to data flows as opposed to stocks; they rely on data scientists and product and process developers rather than d ata analysts, and they are moving analytics away from the IT function and into core business, operational, and production functions. This assignment will specify the provision of organization data and access on an organizational website. 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IOS 5 3Read MoreTaking a Look at the Phantom A32103 Words   |  8 Pages MediaTek1.5 GHzQuad core processor 4.1.Mediatek introduction 4.2.What does QAUD MEAN? 5. Processor architecture 5.1.HowCPU works 5.2.Single core processor 6. Quad core processor 6.1. Dual core processor 6.2. Quad core Architecture 6.3. Quad core performance with multimedia 7. MT6589T Quad core 1.5 GHZ ARM Cortex-A7 7.1.1. Big Little 7.1.2. CPU Migration 7.1.3.Heterogeneous Multi Processing 7.1.4. Scheduling 7.1.5. ARM Cortex A-7 7.1.6. ARM Architecture 8. References â€Æ' 1Read MoreFeatures Of A Operating System1048 Words   |  5 Pageswouldn’t affect all of the users. Operating systems come preloaded on any computer you purchase and it is possible to upgrade or change the OS. There are three Operating Systems that will be explained further on, Microsoft Windows, Chrome OS, and Android. Android is different than Microsoft Windows and Chrome OS because it is an operating system for mobile phones and tablets. Microsoft Windows or Windows OS is a computer operating system developed by the Microsoft Corporation to run PCs and was introducedRead MoreMobile Operating Systems1268 Words   |  6 Pagessystems †¢ Apple iOS †¢ RIM BlackBerry OS †¢ HP WebOS †¢ Bada from Samsung Electronics 2. Third party proprietary operating systems †¢ Microsoft Windows Phone 7 †¢ Microsoft Windows Mobile 3. Free open source operating systems †¢ Android †¢ MeeGo †¢ Symbian Let’s now take a look at some popular operating systems 1. Apple iOS Apple s iPhone OS was originallyRead MoreAndroid App Development Research Paper1064 Words   |  5 PagesHow Android App Development Is Changing The Mobile Space With the growth of mobile phone technology, the world is experiencing immeasurable contracting rate. Along with the rising population of mobile users, facilities are not relenting to expand also. 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Sunday, May 10, 2020

English Language Practice Indirect Speech

In conversation and writing, dialogue may be either direct or indirect. Direct speech comes from the source, whether spoken aloud or written as a quotation. Indirect speech, also known as reported speech, is a second-hand account of something a person said.   Using the Past Tense Unlike direct speech, which occurs in the present tense, indirect speech usually occurs in the past tense. For example, the verbs say and tell  are used to relate a conversation that you have had with someone. In this case, the verb that you are relating moves one step back into the past. Tom: Im working hard these days.You: (relating this statement to a friend): Tom said he was working hard lately.Annie: We bought some truffles for a fancy dinner.You: (relating this statement to a friend): Annie told me they had bought some truffles for a fancy dinner. Using the Present Tense Indirect speech sometimes can be used in the  present tense  to report to someone who has not heard the original statement. When using say in the present tense, keep the tense the same as the original statement, but make sure to change the appropriate  pronouns  and helping verbs. For example: Direct speech:  I am giving my opinion.Reported speech:  He says he is giving his opinion.Direct speech: I moved back to my parents house two years ago.Reported speech: Anna says she moved back to her parents house two years ago. Pronouns and Time Expressions When changing from direct speech to reported speech, it is often necessary to change the pronouns to match the subject of the sentence. Direct speech:  Im going to visit Tom tomorrow.Reported speech:  Ken told me he was going to visit Tom the next day. It is also important to change time expressions when referring to present, past, or future time to match the moment of speaking. Direct speech:  We are working on our end of the year report right now.Reported speech:  She said they were working on their end of the year report at that moment. Questions When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. In these examples, note how the response repeats the question.  Simple past, present perfect, and past perfect  all  change to past perfect in the reported form. Direct speech:  Do you want to come with me?Reported speech:  She asked me if I wanted to come with her.Direct speech:  Where did you go last weekend?Reported speech:  Dave asked me where I had gone the previous weekend.Direct speech:  Why are you studying English?Reported speech:  She asked me why I was studying English. Verb Changes Although the past tense is most often used in indirect speech, you can also use other verb tenses. Here is a chart of the most common verb changes for reported speech. Present simple to past simple tense: Direct speech: I work hard.Reported speech: He said he worked hard. Present continuous to past continuous tense: Direct speech:  She is playing the piano.Reported speech:  He said she was playing the piano. Future tense (using will): Direct speech:  Tom will have a good time.Reported speech:  He said Tom would have a good time. Future tense (using going): Direct speech:  Anna is going to attend the conference.Reported speech:  Peter said Anna was going to attend the conference. Present perfect to past perfect tense: Direct speech:  I have visited Rome three times.Reported speech:  He said he had visited Rome three times. Past simple to past perfect tense: Direct speech:  Frank bought a new car.Reported speech:  She said Frank had bought a new car. Worksheet Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense by moving the reported verb one step back into the past when necessary. Im working in Dallas today. / He said he _____ (work) in Dallas that day.I think he will win the election. / She said she _____ (think) he _____ (win) the election.Anna lives in London. / Peter says Anna _____ (live) in London.My father is going to visit us next week. / Frank said his father ______ (visit) them the following week.They bought a brand new Mercedes! / She said they _____ (buy) a brand new Mercedes.I have worked at the company since 1997. / She said she _____ (work) at the company since 1997.They are watching TV at the moment. / She said they _____ (watch) TV at that moment.Francis drives to work every day. / He said Francis _____ (drive) to work every day.Alan thought about changing his job last year. / Alan said that he _____ (thought) about changing his job the previous year.Susan is flying to Chicago tomorrow. / Susan said she _____ (fly) to Chicago the next day.George went to the hospital last night. / Peter said that George _____ (go) to the hospital the preceding night.I enjoy playing golf on Saturdays. / Ken says that he _____ (enjoy) playing golf on Saturdays.I will change jobs soon. / Jennifer told me she _____ (change) jobs soon.Frank is getting married in July. / Anna tells me that Frank ______ (get married) in July.October is the best month of the year. / The teacher says that October _____ (be) the best month of the year.Sarah wants to buy a new house. / Jack told me that his sister ______ (want) to buy a new house.They are working hard on the new project. / The boss told me that they _____ (work) hard on the new project.Weve lived here for ten years. / Frank told me that they _____ (live) there for ten years.I take the subway to work every day. / Ken tells me he _____ (take) the subway to work every day.Angela prepared lamb for dinner yesterday. / Peter told us that Angela ______ (prepare) lamb for dinner the day before. Worksheet Answers Im working in Dallas today. / He said he  was working  in Dallas that day.I think he will win the election. / She said she  thought  he  would win  the election.Anna lives in London. / Peter says Anna  lives  in London.My father is going to visit us next week. / Frank said his father  was going to visit  them the following week.They bought a brand new Mercedes! / She said they  had bought  a brand new Mercedes.I have worked at the company since 1997. / She said she  had worked  at the company since 1997.They are watching TV at the moment. / She said they  were watching  TV at that moment.Francis drives to work every day. / He said Francis  drove  to work every day.Alan thought about changing his job last year. / Alan said that he  had thought  about changing his job the previous year.Susan is flying to Chicago tomorrow. / Susan said she  was flying  to Chicago the next day.George went to the hospital last night. / Peter said that George   had gone  to the hospital the preceding night.I enjoy playing golf on Saturdays. / Ken says that he  enjoys  playing golf on Saturdays.I will change jobs soon. / Jennifer told me she  would change  jobs soon.Frank is getting married in July. / Anna tells me that Frank  is getting  in July.October is the best month of the year. / The teacher says that October  is  the best month of the year.Sarah wants to buy a new house. / Jack told me that his sister  wanted  to buy a new house.They are working hard on the new project. / The boss told me that they  were working  hard on the new project.Weve lived here for ten years. / Frank told me that they  had lived  there for ten years.I take the subway to work every day. / Ken tells me he  takes  the subway to work every day.Angela prepared lamb for dinner yesterday. / Peter told us that Angela  had prepared  lamb for dinner the day before.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

We can go about anyplace in the universe and happen a machine that will distribute local currency, taking the money from our place history with the usage of a bank card. Yet, when we go from a primary attention doctor to a specializer in our place town, we must get down from the beginning, supplying the new physician ‘s office with all our medical information, frequently by finishing paper signifiers. If we were going abroad and needed entree to our wellness information, we would confront troubles. We will write a custom essay sample on The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fiscal establishments have for old ages developed and used criterions for the electronic exchange of fiscal information, but medical specialty has lagged far behind in the electronic exchange of medical information [ 1 ] . Health concerns all of us. Information and communicating engineerings ( ICTs ) are progressively supplying us with the tools and cognition that we need to better wellness attention, enabling solutions that benefit patients every bit good as health care professionals and establishments in both the private and public sectors worldwide [ 2 ] . As patients interact with increasing Numberss of clinicians and infirmaries, it seems sensible to anticipate their wellness attention informations to follow them. In catastrophes such as hurricanes or fires, paper records may be lost everlastingly [ 1 ] . In big infirmaries, these records may be unavailable because they are stored in the clinic or concern office when the patient comes into the exigency room. Access to records is limited to one individual at a clip, and such entree must be on site. paper records may necessitate a big country for storage. It may miss comprehensive medical information refering the history of intervention given by separate health care suppliers, Fortunately, electronic wellness records are bit by bit going a world [ 3,4 ] . The term â€Å" e-health † , coined in the latter portion of the 20th century. It is mentioning to all digital health-related information. It covers, merchandises, such as devices to guarantee the changeless monitoring of blood force per unit area in patients, systems, such as computer-assisted surgery systems, and services, such as: operating surgical, computer-assisted prescription services, and information services for patients and consumers, including single electronic wellness records [ 2 ] . There is a strong belief that wellness IT will ensue in important betterments in patients’health every bit good as the wellness attention system [ 5 ] . Many people use the footings electronic medical record ( EMR ) and electronic wellness record ( EHR ) interchangeably. However, these footings describe wholly different constructs, both of which are to better patient safety, better the quality and efficiency of patient attention, and cut down health care bringing costs [ 6 ] . An electronic medical record ( EMR ) is more than an electronic version of the paper-based record. It is a computer-based system for pull offing and presenting informations required for patient attention. It offers many maps, such as an incorporate position of patient informations, clinical determination support, clinician order entry, integrated communications support, and entree to knowledge resources. The EMR should interface to other systems, such as charge, pharmaceutics, radiology, programming, and pattern direction [ 3 ] . An electronic wellness record ( EHR ) means a depository of patient informations in digital signifier, stored and exchanged firmly, a nd accessible by multiple authorised users. It includes information sing patient demands during episodes of attention provided by different wellness attention professionals. The EHR is used by different wellness attention professionals and besides by administrative staff. Among the assorted wellness attention professionals who use different constituents of the EHR are doctors, nurses, radiotherapists, druggists, research lab technicians and radiographers. Furthermore, EHRs are besides used by patients or their parents [ 12 ] . The precursor to the EHR is the paper-based patient-centred medical record that was pioneered in the early twentieth century [ 4 ] . In 1907, the Mayo Clinic pioneered the construct of one separate file for each patient, making the patient-centered medical record. In the sixtiess, Lawrence Weed, MD, introduced the problem-oriented medical record in order to supply standardisation of patient records [ 3 ] . In 1968, G. Octo Barnett, MD, developed the early EMR systems, it was Computer-Stored Ambulatory Record [ 3 ] . In 1972, The Department of Family Medicine at the University of South Carolina was one of the first known organisations to develop and utilize an EMR [ 7 ] . Carcinero, et Al. dei ¬?ne the ideal clinical record as the sum sum of an person ‘s clinical history available to any healthcare professional responsible for that individual ‘s care. [ 4 ] . In 1996, the Chief Information Office of the Veterans Administration introduced Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture. It is a national EMR system built on a client-server architecture, which ties together work Stationss and personal computing machines with graphical user interfaces at Veterans Health Administration installations [ 3 ] . In 2007, Hollingworth et al. , found that utilizing EMRs for ordering does non interrupt clinical work flow, and enhances safety and quality of attention for the patient [ 7 ] . In 2009, McCullough and Parente, found little but positive effects of EMR on patient safety [ 5 ] . The cost of a system in which suppliers of wellness attention to inveterate ill people operate in disconnected silos where one physician frequently does non cognize what another has tested for and prescribed, sometimes even when they are members of the same attention squad. This deficiency of information-sharing and coordination: More than 50 % of physicians do non follow best pattern guidelines ; Between 30 and 50 % of patients with chronic disease are hospitalized because of unequal attention direction. Information engineering, through sharing cognition among the attention squad can do a difference. These results are non hard to accomplish [ 13 ] . Because of that, we need to incorporate electronic wellness attention records ( EHRs ) . This is motivated by a desire to incorporate complex health care information systems with a position to bettering procedure and service optimisation [ 4 ] . In 2004, President Bush announced a federal enterprise for all wellness attention systems to passage from paper-based informations direction to electronic-based informations direction [ 7 ] The function of electronic health care record in incorporate wellness attention by enabling clinical information sharing and i ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ows between health care organic structures, supplying a individual lifelong record centered on the patient that allows easy collection of information from separate episodes of attention from different establishments, leting information to be presented in ways relevant to immediate clinical demands, easing proficient steps that cut down mistakes by extinguishing manual procedures and leting connexions to other clinical information systems and media depositories such as electronic prescriptions and clinical guideline systems [ 4 ] . Harmonizing to Armitage et al. , an integrated bringing system ( IDS ) provides a agency to construct a more effectual and efficient wellness attention system that takes a patient-centered focal point and better meets the demands of the populations served. The construct of the IDS emerged in the wellness attention industry in the 1990s in response to the quickly altering environment [ 8 ] . In February 2003, Kaiser announced programs for a new records system, Kaiser Permanente is the most well-known illustration of a to the full integrated bringing system. Kaiser Permanente operates in nine provinces, including Washington, DC, and has about 9 million members, 14,000 physicians and 160,000 employees. It will incorporate patients’clinical medical records with assignment programming, enrollment, and charging systems across all of Kaiser ‘s parts. When the system is complete it will supply the ability for Kaiser doctors to hold instant entree to patients ‘ medical reco rds ; e-messaging capableness ; computerized order entry ; e-prescribing ; and intervention guidelines. [ 8, 10, 11 ] Harmonizing to Shih, there are four theoretical accounts of integrating: multispecialty group pattern ( MSGP ) with a wellness program, an IDS or MSGP single-entity bringing system that does non have a wellness program, theoretical account which involves private webs of independent suppliers that portion and co-ordinate services, theoretical account which includes authorities facilitated webs of independent suppliers on both the province and local degrees [ 8 ] . Electronic wellness information systems are critical to supplying integrated attention. One of the major constituents of an integrated bringing system ( IDS ) is a wellness information system that can roll up patient-level informations through an electronic wellness record ( EHR ) and aggregative informations to system broad degree for rating. Harmonizing to Hillestad et al. , effectual acceptance of EHRs can take to major cost nest eggs, cut down medical mistakes and better wellness [ 8 ] . There are multiple benefits to implementing EHRs, efficiency of wellness services bringing ; clip nest eggs for all wellness professionals and patients by and large ; cost nest eggs ; fewer clinical and medical mistakes associated with inadequate or uncomplete information ; improved patient safety ; improved quality of attention ; betterments in public wellness [ 9 ] . Harmonizing to Hillestad et al. , other benefits of EHRs include: Integration of evidence-based recommendations for preventative services, such as testing tests, with patient informations ( age, sex and household history ) to place specific services for each patient, Increased patient conformity with preventative attention recommendations, such as when EHR systems remind doctors of everyday visits and attention, Enhanced disease direction, Increased communicating between multiple specializers for higher-risk patients [ 8 ] . Despite the benefits of implementing EHRs, there are barriers to uptake like: Doctor and nurse reserve due to: fright of break to pattern work flows ; clip required for developing staff ; concerns about interoperability ; fright of losing professional liberty ; concern about stiff inflexibleness of documenting with EHRs ; Comfort-level, accomplishment and experience with paper-based records. Harmonizing to Crossen and Tollen, barriers to organizing integrated wellness attention systems fall into six classs: Legal and regulative, Governance, Operational, Cultural, Academic medical centre particular and Safety cyberspace specific [ 9 ] . Harmonizing to Hillestad, merely 20 to 25 per centum of all infirmaries have adopted EHRs. Lack of acceptance can be attributed to high costs, deficiency of enfranchisement and standardisation, and concerns about privateness. EHR deployment faces multiple barriers, which frequently hinder EHRs from making their full potency [ 8,9 ] The complications in incorporating the usage of EHRs within and between healthcare suppliers will go on to be disputing. EHR integrating schemes are less good developed and, in many instances, constrained by the moderating factors that are characteristic of the health care sector. The challenges of EHR acceptance, integrating and assimilation are hence legion. Technical challenges include, for illustration: trouble in aggregating bing patient information [ 4 ] . This is an overview about Electronic wellness record system. This position showed that there are benefits and restrictions in the field of integrating between electronic wellness records since some of the bing system have restriction while some of them are non deployed yet. There for, there is an pressing demand to plan and deploy an integrating electronic wellness records system. How to cite The Term E Health Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Social facilitation theory Essay Example

Social facilitation theory Paper Social facilitation describes the process in which performance is affected by the presence of others and is studied due to the importance of performance improvement in workplaces, education etc. Within social facilitation are coaction and audience effects. The term audience effect is used to explain the effect of a passive presence on performance and was first observed by Dashiell (1930). He looked at the effect of observation on college students completing multiplication problems, and discovered that whilst more problems were finished, the students tended to make more errors, when problem-solving before an audience. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Studies then focused on the audience size and status. Porter (1939) asked people who stuttered to read aloud to an audience, finding that participants presented with a larger audience were much more affected, and stuttered more than those with a smaller audience. Cottrell et al. (1968) used a blindfolded audience as his experimental condition so that participants could not be observed and found that the audience effects practically disappeared. The experimenter observed his participant even in the alone condition and this might have impaired results. Paulus and Murdock (1971) compared the audience effects shown by student research participants either being observed by an audience of psychology students, or by an audience which contained an expert. The expert was likely to be able to evaluate the performance/capability of the student and in this condition, results showed stronger audience effects. The experiment did use an unrepresentative sample. Latanend Harkins (1976) asked participants about their own nervousness as they recited poems before audiences, which varied in size and status. Whilst the participants rated themselves on different experiences, the experimenters found that participants rated themselves more nervous when before a larger or higher status audience. These experiments implied that the ability of the audience to evaluate the participants performance was important, that both the status and size of the aud ience made a great difference to the results. We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social facilitation theory specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Others studied audience effect variance with task complexity. Cottrell, Rittle and Wack (1967) found that an audience facilitates the memorisation of simple word lists but more complex ones are learnt more slowly. Zajonc, Heingarter and Herman (1969) studied cockroaches and their behaviour when presented with a four-cockroach audience in two situations. In the first, cockroaches ran down a straight runway into a darkened goal area in order to avoid bright light. Here, the audience improved performance. In the second situation, the cockroach escape response was made more complex by requiring a 90O turn to achieve the goal. In this situation, audience impaired cockroaches performance. Hunt and Hillerys (1973) human experiment yielded comparable results in complex and simple mazes, both experiments lacked ecological validity. From his experiment, Zajonc summarised that social facilitation depends on task complexity and familiarity, saying that, An audience impairs the acquisition of new responses and facilitates the emission of well-learned responses. Simple, familiar things are done better when observed, but more complex, unfamiliar tasks are done less well when observed due to an instinctive response to anothers presence and increase in arousal. Cottrell (1972) rejected this, suggesting the evaluation apprehension model instead. He said that early in life we through anothers evaluation we receive social rewards and punishments (approval, disapproval etc. ), so the audience triggers arousal based on evaluation apprehension.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria Essays - Pharmaceuticals Policy

Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria Essays - Pharmaceuticals Policy Antibiotic Resistance In Bacteria For about 50 years, antibiotics have been the answer to many bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemical substances that are secreted by living things. Doctors prescribed these medicines to cure many diseases. During World War II, it treated one of the biggest killers during wartime - infected wounds. It was the beginning of the antibiotic era. But just when antibiotics were being mass produced, bacteria started to evolve and became resistant to these medicines. Antibiotic resistance can be the result of different things. One cause of resistance could be drug abuse. There are people who believe that when they get sick, antibiotics are the answer. The more times you use a drug, the more it will decrease the effect it has on you. That is because the bacteria has found a way to avoid the effects of that antibiotic. Another cause of resistance is the improper use of drugs. When patients feel that the symptoms of their disease have improved, they often stop taking the drug. Just because the symptoms have disappeared it does not mean the disease has gone away. Prescribed drugs should be taken until all the medicine is gone so the disease is completely finished. If it is not, then this will just give the bacteria some time to find a way to avoid the effects of the drug. One antibiotic that will always have a long lasting effect in history is penicillin. This was the first antibiotic ever to be discovered. Alexander Fleming was the person responsible for the discovery in 1928. In his laboratory, he noticed that in some of his bacteria colonies, that he was growing, were some clear spots. He realized that something had killed the bacteria in these clear spots, which ended up to be a fungus growth. He then discovered that inside this mold was a substance that killed bacteria. It was the antibiotic, penicillin. Penicillin became the most powerful germ-killer known at that time. Antibiotics kill disease-causing bacteria by interfering with their processes. Penicillin kills bacteria by attaching to their cell walls. Then it destroys part of the wall. The cell wall breaks apart and bacteria dies. After four years, when drug companies started to mass produce penicillin, in 1943, the first signs of penicillin-resistant bacteria started to show up. The first bacteria that fought penicillin was called Staphylococcus aureus. This bug is usually harmless but can cause an illness such as pneumonia. In 1967, another penicillin-resistant bacteria formed. It was called pneumococcus and it broke out in a small village in Papua New Guinea. Other penicillin resistant bacteria that formed are Enterococcus faecium and a new strain of gonorrhea. Antibiotic resistance can occur by a mutation of DNA in bacteria or DNA acquired from another bacteria that is drug-resistant through transformation. Penicillin-resistant bacteria can alter their cell walls so penicillin can not attach to it. The bacteria can also produce different enzymes that can take apart the antibiotic. Since antibiotics became so prosperous, all other strategies to fight bacterial diseases were put aside. Now since the effects of antibiotics are decreasing and antibiotic resistance is increasing, new research on how to battle bacteria is starting. Antibiotic resistance spreads fast but efforts are being made to slow it. Improving infection control, discovering new antibiotics, and taking drugs more appropriately are ways to prevent resistant bacteria from spreading. In developing nations, approaches are being made to control infections such as hand washing by health care people, and identifying drug resistant infections quickly to keep them away from others. The World Health Organization has began a global computer program that reports any outbreaks of drug-resistant bacterial infections. In the early 1900's, the discovery of penicillin began the antibiotic era. People thought they have finally won the battle with bacteria. But now since antibiotic resistance is increasing rapidly, new strategies must be developed to destroy these microbes. To many scientists the antibiotic era is over Bibliography Bylinsky, Gene. Sept. 5,1995. The new fight against killer microbes. Fortune. p. 74-76. Dixon, Bernard. March 17,1995. Return of the killer bugs. New Statesman & Society. p. 29-32. Levy, Stuart B. Jan. 15,1995. Dawn of the post-antibiotic era? Patient Care. p. 84-86. Lewis, Ricki. Sept. 1995. The rise of antibiotic-resistant infections. FDA Consumer. p. 11-15. Miller, Julie Ann. June 1995. Preparing for the postantibiotic era. BioScience. p. 384-392. an excellent news article summary, got me a 100, by strife007

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

What Is a placebo

What Is a placebo A placebo is a procedure or substance with no inherent medicinal value. Placebos are often used in statistical experiments, especially those involving pharmaceutical testing, in order to control the experiment as much as possible. We will examine the structure of experiments and see the reasons for using a placebo. Experiments Experiments typically involve two different groups: an experimental group and a control group. The members of the control group do not receive the experimental treatment and the experimental group does. In this way, we are able to compare the responses of members in both groups. Any differences that we observe in the two groups may be due to the experimental treatment. But how can we be sure? How do we really know if an observed difference in a response variable is the result of an experimental treatment? These questions address the presence of lurking variables. These kinds of variables influence the response variable but are often hidden. When dealing with experiments involving human subjects we should always be on the lookout for lurking variables. A careful design of our experiment will limit the effects of lurking variables. Placebos are one way to do this. Use of Placebos Humans can be difficult to work with as subjects for an experiment. The knowledge that one is a subject of an experiment and a member of a control group can affect certain responses. The act of receiving a medication from a doctor or nurse has a powerful psychological effect on some individuals. When someone thinks they are being given something that will produce a certain response, sometimes they will exhibit this response. Because of this, sometimes doctors will prescribe placeboes with therapeutic intent, and they can be effective treatments for some issues.   To mitigate any psychological effects of the subjects, a placebo can be given to the members of the control group. In this way, every subject of the experiment, in both the control and experimental groups, will have a similar experience of receiving what they think is medication from a health professional. This also has the added benefit of not revealing to the subject if he or she is in the experimental or control group. Types of Placebos A placebo is designed to be as close to the means of administration of the experimental treatment as possible. Thus placebos can take on a variety of forms. In the testing of a new pharmaceutical drug, a placebo might be a capsule with an inert substance. This substance would be chosen to have no medicinal value and is sometimes referred to as a sugar pill. It is important that the placebo mimic the experimental treatment as closely as possible. This controls the experiment by providing a common experience for everyone, no matter which group they are in. If a surgical procedure is the treatment for the experimental group, then a placebo for the members of the control group could take the form of a faked surgery. The subject would go through all of the preparation and believe that he or she was operated on, without the surgical procedure actually being performed.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Ryan air case study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ryan air case study - Essay Example The Ryanair, founded in 1985 by the Ryan Family, is an airline which provides airline services that cover routes between Ireland and the United Kingdom. This airline industry served first as a second choice for passengers because the main airline that time was Aer Lingus. During its first years of operations, Ryanair was a "full service conventional airline", with two different seat classes and renting three varied types of aircraft. (O'Higgins 2004) In the early 1990's, Ryanair encountered problems in terms of management and profit gains. The lack of a stable management led by a good CEO resulted to losses amounting to 20 million Irish pounds. Before the appointment of Michael O'Leary as chief executive, five people have already held that same position in a short span of time. (O'Higgins 2004) With the leadership of the newly appointed CEO Michael O'Higgins, Ryanair underwent reforms in order to recover the losses the airline had in the early years. The new formula includes setting-up cheap fares, having no frills or decorations, and adopting the Southwest Airlines model. These reforms started the big turnaround in the airline company in the latter years of the decade. In 1997, Ryanair was a company "floated in an IPO1 on the Dublin Stock Exchange and on Nasdaq- 1002 but the following year, it registered 9.1 million shares on the London Stock Exchange." By the year 2002, the company was included in the Nasdaq- 100. (O'Higgins 2004 p. 834) III. STRATEGIC INTENT Low Cost Airfares The main goal of Ryanair is to keep the company as the leader of low fare airlines which operates "point-to-point short-haul flights" out of regional or secondary airports in Europe. (O'Higgins 2004, p.835) All the other strategies revolve around the primary objective of providing "no-frills service with low fares". This approach tries to target the budget conscious leisure and business travelers, as well as people who are never used to travel by air instead used other means of travel like land and water. (O'Higgins 2004) The air company provided the cheapest way possible to travel by air. It distributed most of the seat inventories to the lowest fare class. The no frills services made the company focus more on other services that are essential to the customers like: (1) frequent departures, (2) advance reservations, (3) baggage handling, and (4) consistent on-time services. It also removed the "non-essential extras (advance seat assignments, free in-flight meals, multi class seating, and access to a frequent flyer program, complimentary drinks, and other amenities) that interfered with the reliable, low cost delivery of its basic flights." (O'Higgins 2004, p. 835) Impacts The strategies of Ryanair which are centered to providing the cheapest air travelling services contributed to very good results. The company surpassed the Aer Lingus as the number one airline covering travels between Ireland and United Kingdom. This fantastic result is due to increased number of passengers (4 million) availing the low cost airline services. The increase of the company's market share to 37 percent enabled them to expand from Irish-UK route to 133 routes, with 86 destinations from 16 countries around the world. (O'Higgins 2004) By the end of 2003, the company had achieved the following: Ryanair became